APA 7 Reference Types

APA 7 Reference Examples

Contents

APA 7 reference types include texts, video and audio references, online media, and personal communications. All these are APA 7 reference types, which have various subtypes. These are:

Texts

Texts include books, journal articles, webpage articles, issue briefs, reports, magazine articles, newspaper articles, conference presentations and proceedings, dissertation and thesis references, dictionary/encyclopedia entries, and the Bible.

Books

Whole/Stand-Alone Books

Generally, an APA 7 reference for a whole/stand-alone book takes the form:

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Publication Year). Italicized book title. Publisher.

Here is a real example:

Millan, C., & Peltier, M. J. (2009). How to raise the perfect dog: Through puppyhood and beyond. Three Rivers Press.

Please note that APA 7 does not require writers to include the location of publication of a book in its reference. This is a departure from APA 6 formatting guidelines, which required the inclusion of the location.

Chapter in an Edited Book

In general, the APA 7 format for referencing a chapter in an edited book takes the form:

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Year of Publication). Chapter title: Should not be italicized. In First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. Editor & First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. Editor (Eds.), Book title in italics (5th ed., pp. 34-36). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxx

Here is an example:

Mills, J. S., Shannon, A., & Hogue, J. (2017). Beauty, body image, and the media. In M.P. Levine (Ed.), Perception of beauty (pp. 145-157). Intech. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68944

Book with Multiple Publishers

Sometimes a book can have multiple publishers, which can be confusing for some writers. In such a case, the publishers’ names should be listed following the order used in the source’s copyright page.

Journal Article APA 7 Reference

In general, the reference for a journal article takes the form:

Surname, A. A., Surname, B. B., & Surname, C. C. (Year of Publication). Article’s title: Should not be italicized. Italicized Journal Title, Italicized Volume Number(Issue Number), Page Number(s).

Here is a real example:

Orlov, V. (2014). Security assurances to Ukraine and the 1994 Budapest Memorandum: From the 1990s to the Crimea crisis. Security Index: A Russian Journal on International Security20(2), 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/19934270.2014.985136

In the above reference, please note that:

  1. (2014) is the year of publication. The abbreviation ‘’n.d.’’ (which stands for “no date”) is used when the publication year is unavailable.
  2. When writing the article’s title, only capitalize the first letters of proper nouns, the first letters of the article title, and the letter immediately after a dash or colon,.
  3. The title of the journal uses Uppercase and Lowercase, and it is italicized.
  4. 20 is the volume number, and it is italicized.
  5. 2 is the issue number, and it is not italicized. Thus, only the Journal Title/Name and volume number are italicized.
  6. 113-140 are the page numbers of the journal where the article can be found.

Website and Webpage APA 7 Reference

Entire Website

You do not need to provide references when referring to a whole website in your work. Similarly, you do not need to write in-text citations for a whole website. Simply write the website’s name and its URL (enclosed in parenthesis) in the text. Alternatively, you can add a link to the website’s name where possible, therefore directing the reader to the website in question. For example:

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (https://www.cdc.gov/) advised on emerging Covid-19 variants.

OR

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided updates on emerging Covid-19 variants.

Webpage Article or Document with Individual Authors

Shown below is the general format of an APA 7 webpage reference:

Author, F. M., Author, F. M., & Author, F. M. (Date of Publication). Webpage article title: Should be italicized. Name of the Website. http://www.example.com

Here is a real example:

Cron, R., & Chatham, W. W. (2020, March 12). How doctors can potentially significantly reduce the number of deaths from Covid-19: We already have medicines for treating cytokine storm syndrome, the immune response that’s killing many who die of Covid-19. Vox. https://www.vox.com/2020/3/12/21176783/coronavirus-covid-19-deaths-china-treatment-cytokine-storm-syndrome

In the above reference, please note that:

1. (2020, March 12) is the webpage’s date of publication. If the publishers have presented the date the website was last updated, use it instead. In case the exact date is available, use the format (Year, Month Day), for instance, (2020, March 12). If the year and month are available, use the format (Year, Month), for example, (2020, March). In case only the year is available, use the format (Year), for example, (2020). If there is no date indicated, write (n.d.). Note: “n.d.” stands for “no date.” Generally, for sources published frequently (e.g., newspaper articles), use an exact date where possible. For sources published infrequently, only provide the year of publication if it is available.

2. The article’s title is written in sentence case. Please capitalize the first letters of:

  • A title
  • A subtitle (i.e., the section immediately following a colon, dash, or period)
  • Proper nouns
  • Nouns that are followed by digits or numerals (e.g., Experiment 10 and Figure 8)

Also, the title of the article is italicized.

3. Unlike in APA 6, the text “Retrieved from” does not precede the uniform resource locator (URL) of an APA 7 webpage reference, as discussed under retrieval information for webpage references.

Webpage Article or Document by a Group Author

This often refers to a reference for a webpage article authored by a government agency. The format is similar to that of webpage article with individual authors. However, a notable difference is that the government agency is considered the author. Also, parent agency names not included in the author element are written under the webpage name/source element. The date should be specific whenever possible. A writer should use the date the article (not the entire webpage) was updated when a webpage article shows when it was last updated. The date the work was last reviewed should not be used. This is because reviewed work does not necessarily mean it was changed. Below is a sample format:

Name of Government Agency. (Year, Month Date). Italicized article title. Parent Agency Name. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/brain-stimulation-therapies/brain-stimulation-therapies

Webpage with an Organization as the Group Author

This refers to a reference for a webpage article authored by an organization. The organization’s name assumes the author’s position. When the website and the author share a name, leave out the website’s name. For example:

World Health Organization. (2022, January 25). WHO establishes a technical advisory group on measurement, monitoring and evaluation of UN decade of healthy ageing. https://www.who.int/news/item/25-01-2022-who-establishes-a-technical-advisory-group-on-measurement-monitoring-and-evaluation-of-un-decade-of-healthy-ageing

Other examples of webpage articles with individual authors and group authors are listed in the references section of Bibliography Maker’s APA 7 Changes post.

Webpage with Dynamic Information

This refers to a reference for a webpage article with dynamic information that changes with time but is unarchived. Unlike the reference for an ordinary webpage without dynamic information, a reference for a webpage with unarchived data that changes with time must include a retrieval date. However, the text “Retrieved from” does not precede the uniform resource locator (URL) of an APA 7 reference for an ordinary webpage with undynamic and/or archived information.

Issue Briefs

Issue Brief with an Organization as the Group Author

Below is the general format of an APA 7 reference for an issue brief with an organization as its group author:

Name of Organization. (Publication Year). Title of the issue brief: Should be italicized (Issue Brief No. 12345). http://www.example.com

Here is a real example:

World Health Organization. (2020). Criteria for releasing COVID-19 patients from isolation (WHO Reference No. WHO/2019-nCoV/Sci_Brief/Discharge_From_Isolation/2020.1). https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1286634/retrieve

In the above reference, please note that:

  1. Specifically, the example above is a scientific brief. Authors can give their issue briefs different names (e.g., research briefs, scientific briefs, etc.); nevertheless, the general format for referencing an issue brief does not change with its name.
  2. (2020) is the brief’s year of publication. When the publication year is not indicated, write (n.d.). Note: “n.d.” stands for “no date.” Generally, for sources published frequently (e.g., newspaper articles), use an exact date where possible. For sources published infrequently, only provide the year of publication if it is available.
  3. The title of the brief uses sentence case. Only capitalize:
  • the title’s first letter
  • the subtitle’s first letter (i.e., the section immediately following a period, colon, or dash)
  • the first letters of proper nouns
  • the first letters of nouns that are followed by digits or numerals (e.g., Figure 23)

NB: Please note the title of the brief is italicized.

  1. If there is a number alongside the issue brief, often an issue brief number or a reference number, write the number after the title number and enclose it in parentheses. Do not italicize the number.
  2. When a digital object identifier (DOI) for the brief is provided, write it in the reference. If the brief has a resolvable uniform resource locator (URL) but no DOI, include the URL.
Issue Brief with Individual Authors

Below is the general format of an APA 7 reference for an issue brief with an individual author(s):

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Publication Year). Title of the issue brief: Should be italicized (Issue Brief No. 123456). Publisher. http://www.example.com

Reports

Report with a Government Agency as the Group Author

Below is the general format of an APA 7 reference for a report with a government agency as its group author:

Name of Agency. (Publication Year). Title of the report: Should be italicized (Report No. 6789). Names of Parent Agencies. https://doi.org/xxxxx

NB: If the issuing agency numbered the report (e.g., reference number, contract number, report number, etc.), provide the number in brackets just after the title. Do not italicize the number.

Report with an Organization as the Group Author

Below is the general format of an APA 7 reference for a report with an organization as its group author:

Name of Organization. (Year of Publication). Title of the report: Should be italicized (Report No. 54321). https://doi.org/xxxxx

Here is a real example:

World Health Organization. (2020). Global tuberculosis report 2020. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336069/9789240013131-eng.pdf?ua=1

Report with Individual Authors

Below is the general format of an APA 7 reference for a report with an individual author(s):

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of the report: Should be italicized (Report No. 7654). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxx

Here is an example of a reference for a technical report.

Haeberlen, A., Fonseca, P., Rodrigues, R., & Druschel, P. (2011). Fighting cybercrime with packet attestation (Technical Report MPI-SWS-2011-002). University of Pennsylvania. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1652&context=cis_papers

Magazine Article

In general, the APA 7 reference for a magazine article takes the form:

Author, F. M., Author, F. M., & Author, F. M. (Date of Publication). Title of the magazine article: Should not be italicized. Italicized Magazine Title, Volume Number in Italics(Issue Number), Page Numbers.

Here is a real example:

Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194(3), 60-71.

Here is another example from an online magazine:

Grigoriadis, V. (2015, October 11). The passion of Nicki Minaj: The world’s biggest female rap superstar has meticulously crafted her own image – And maintained it with uncompromising control. The New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/11/magazine/the-passion-of-nicki-minaj.html

Newspaper Article

In general, the APA 7 reference for a newspaper article takes the form:

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Date of Publication). Title of the newspaper article: Should not be italicized. Title of Newspaper, Volume Number(Issue Number), Page Numbers.

In APA 7, the abbreviations p. or pp. should not come before a newspaper article’s page numbers in the reference entry. This is a departure from APA 6 formatting guidelines where p. or pp. precede page numbers.

The newspaper article below is formatted in APA 7:

Goodman, J. D. (2020, October 16). New York City fights covid-19 block by block: Scattershot approach to avert full closure. The New York Times, CLXX(58,848), A1, A8.

Here is another example:

Hayashi, Y. (2022, March 1). U.S. says it is realigning its China Trade Policy. The Wall Street Journalhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-says-it-is-realigning-its-china-trade-policy-11646150650

There is no volume number and no issue number in the newspaper containing the article from the above example. Consequently, they are not indicated in the reference. Pages 1A and 2A of the newspaper contain the article.

Conference References

Conference Presentation

A reference entry for a conference presentation entails:

  • The author element (presenters’ names).
  • Full conference dates (e.g., January 20-22).
  • The notation describing the presentation, such as [Paper presentation] or [Conference session].
  • Conference name and location.
  • When a video is available, include its URL.

Below is a summary of the format:

Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial., & Surname, First Name Initial. Middle Name Initial. (Year, Month Conference Start Date–Conference End Date). Conference presentation title written in sentence case and italicized [Conference presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. Video URL

Conference Presentation Abstract

A conference presentation abstract shares the same format as a conference presentation. However, please use the notation [Conference presentation abstract] instead of [Conference presentation].

Dissertation and Thesis References

Published Dissertations/Theses

Dissertations/theses qualify to be referred to as published if they are available on institutional repositories, institutional archives, or databases such as ProQuest. A published dissertation/thesis reference has the following elements:

  • Author (s) and the publication year (in parenthesis).
  • Dissertation/thesis title in sentence case and italicized
  • Publication number in parenthesis, preceded by the words Publication No. (this applies when the database assigns the dissertation/thesis a publication number).
  • The description [ Doctoral dissertation, University Name], [ Master’s thesis, University Name], or [Undergraduate honors thesis].
  • Database/archive/institutional repository name.
  • Dissertation/thesis URL

Below is a summary of the format:

Author, F. M. (Year). Dissertation or thesis title: Sentence case and italicized (Publication No. 12345). [Doctoral dissertation, XYZ University]. XYZ University Repository. https://xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Unpublished Dissertations/Theses

Unpublished dissertations or theses have the description [Unpublished doctoral dissertation] or [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Below is a summary of the format:

Author, F. M. (Year). Dissertation or thesis title: Sentence case and italicized (Publication No. 12345). [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. XYZ University

Dictionary Entries

An example of a reference entry in an online version of a dictionary is:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Rhetoric. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 2, 2022, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rhetoric

The retrieval date is included since most dictionaries are unarchived and are constantly updated.

For entries in print dictionary versions, please write the dictionary’s edition and page number (i.e., when present) after the dictionary name.

Religious Works

If a religious work is published like a book, it follows the book reference structure. Those published as websites are formatted just like webpage references.

Images

These include images used in assignments and PowerPoint presentations, images used in theses/publications, and artwork on the museum website. Writers must adhere to some fundamental rules when referencing clip art and stock images (APA, 2020b). It is important to follow the terms stipulated in the license before referencing or reproducing an image. As such, some images require attribution, while others do not.

Images Without Attribution

You do not need to credit clip art or image sources if they are declared free to be used without attribution (APA, 2020c). For instance, there are images on Pixabay that do not require attribution. The most important details to include when using such an image or clip art as a figure in the essay include the figure number, image title, and the image itself. A writer can include a note (description of the image) if needed. PowerPoint presentations do not mandate the writer to include the figure number, image title, and note. These elements are considered optional.

Images With Attribution

If the image requires attribution, the writer can provide a reference and in-text citations in APA Style for images that require attribution. The writer provides a figure number, title, and copyright attribution beneath the image. In a PowerPoint presentation, you need to write the copyright attribution (this is used in place of in-text citations). However, figure and title numbers are not compulsory. When the copyright is used as an in-text citation, the order is image title, author name(s), publication date, webpage name, and the URL. The reference should have the author(s), publication year, image title, description (enclosed in brackets), and source (website name or its URL). The common sources of image references include Flickr, iStock, Pixabay, Getty Images (APA, 2020d).

APA Style provides an example of a reference entry and the corresponding in-text citation.

Video and Audio References

The main audiovisual references include music albums, YouTube videos, Ted Talk videos, film and television references, podcasts, radio broadcasts, and tracks/songs. The citation formats for video and audio references vary. This guide highlights some commonly used video/audio references.

Film

Film and video references contain the director’s name, publication date, film title (italicized), the notation [Film or Video] in square brackets, and the production company (Purdue Writing Lab, n.d.). A typical example is as follows:

Darabont, F. (Director). (1994). The Shawshank redemption [Film]. Castle Rock Entertainment.

If the film/video is in another language, the reference entry should take the format director’s name, publication date, film title in original language (italicized), [The translated title in square brackets], and the notation [Film or Video] in square brackets, and the production company.

For example:

Pina, Á. (Director). (2017). La casa de papel [Money heist] [Film]. Atresmedia Vancouver Media.

TV Series

The reference for TV series comprises the name of the executive producer, date range, italicized title of the series, the notation [TV series], and the production company (Purdue Writing Lab, n.d.).

YouTube Video

A YouTube video is cited as follows: name of the person, organization, or group that uploaded the video, publication date, title (italicized), the description [Video], website host, and URL (Purdue Writing Lab, n.d.). Below is a YouTube video reference example:

Nino’s Home. (2020, December 30). Potato Cheese Balls [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PqOH0L8b8gs

Music Album

A music album reference contains the name of the recording artist, release year, album’s title (italicized) and followed by the notation [Album], and the record label (Purdue Writing Lab, n.d.).

For example:

The Weeknd. (2020). After hours [Album]. XO Republic.

Song/Track

A single song/track comprises the name of the recording artist, release year, song title followed by the notation [Song], the description which includes the album title followed by the notation [Album], and the record label.

For example:

The Weeknd. (2020). Alone again [Song]. On After hours [Album]. XO Republic.

Podcast

A podcast reference contains the name of the executive producer, publication range, podcast’s title in italics, followed by the notation [Audio podcast], the production company, and the URL (Purdue Writing Lab, n.d.).

Ted Talk

Citing a TED talk video varies depending on the video’s location, which is either YouTube or the official TED website.

A Ted Talk video from the official TED website comprises the name of the speaker, publication date (i.e., Year, Month), italicized video’s title followed by the notation [Video], the publisher (i.e., TED Conferences), and the URL.

For example:

Rockstrom, J. (2020, October). 10 years to transform the future of humanity – or destabilize the planet [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/johan_rockstrom_10_years_to_transform_the_future_of_humanity_or_destabilize_the_planet#t-1497

A Ted Talk video from YouTube comprises the name of the YouTube channel (in this case, TED), the publication date (i.e., Year, Month Day), followed by the notation [Video], website host, and URL.

For example:

TED. (2012, March 22). Andrew Stanton: The clues to a great story [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxDwieKpawg&list=PLlH_3Rg-KNr-5J-0Wj74Swr_A7JmEJEzs

Radio Broadcast

The reference format for a radio broadcast is the radio host’s name, broadcast date (Year, Month Date), italicized story’s title followed by the notation [Radio broadcast], publisher, and broadcast’s URL.

For example:

Breslo, L. (2022, January 24). USS Nimitz tech reports Air Force personnel boarded ship and took data bricks after tic tac UFO encounter [Radio broadcast]. The X Files Network. https://www.fmradiofree.com/the-x-files-network

Had this been a transcript of a radio broadcast, the format would remain the same save for [Radio broadcast transcript] would be used in place of [Radio broadcast].

Online Media

Examples of online media include Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, LinkedIn, blog posts and blog comments, Instagram, and online discussion forums,  (APA, 2021a).

Facebook

The primary reference examples are Facebook posts and Facebook pages. The details contained in a Facebook post reference entry include the account name, date of the post (Year, Month Date), the title of the post (first 20 words of the Facebook post) followed by the notation [Image attached] or [Video attached] when an image or video is attached, post type, such as [Status update] or [Video], website name (i.e., Facebook), and the URL.

For example:

National Geographic. (2020, November 19). Anaconda on the hunt [Video attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=10158653716735930

The reference of a Facebook page contains details, such as the page name, date, the page title (such as ‘‘Home’’ or ‘About’’) followed by the notation [Facebook page], retrieval date (i.e., Month Date, Year), and the URL it was retrieved from (the word ‘‘from’’ precedes the URL).

For example:

Jesse Lingard. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.facebook.com/search/top?q=jesse%20lingard

Twitter

Reference examples include tweets, Twitter moments, and Twitter profiles.

Tweets

The essential details for a tweet include the name of the group or the individual author (followed by the Twitter handle that is preceded by @ and enclosed in square brackets), the date, title (the first 20 words of the tweet), the notation [Image or Video attached] if an image or video is available, the notation [Tweet], the site name (i.e., Twitter), and URL. This format applies for TikTok and Instagram (APA, 2020e). For example:

SolveMIT. [@SolveMIT]. (2022, January 21). The digital economy still excludes over half of the world’s population [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SolveMIT

Twitter Moment

Twitter moments change, although the dates on moments’ pages do not change. Other details keep changing as users add and remove tweets (APA, 2020f). This makes it necessary to include retrieval dates when providing references for Twitter moments. A Twitter moment has the name of the group or the individual author (followed by the Twitter handle that is preceded by @ and enclosed in square brackets), the date, title (the first 20 words of the tweet), the site name (i.e., Twitter), the retrieval date (Month Date, Year), and URL preceded by the word ‘‘from.’’ For example:

TimesTravel [@TOItravel]. (2022, January 17). Is the Dead Sea really dead? [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved March 2, 2022, from https://twitter.com/i/events/1482958341987246080

Twitter Profile

Below is an example of a Twitter profile:

President Biden [POTUS]. (n.d.). Tweets & replies [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://twitter.com/POTUS/with_replies

Blog Posts and Blog Comments

Blog posts follow the same format exhibited by journal articles. The blog name should be italicized. Blog comments are slightly different. Here, the author is the person commenting on the blog post, while the title is their comment (APA, 2020a). APA Style provides reference examples for blog posts and blog comments.

LinkedIn

LinkedIn Post

This comprises of the LinkedIn account name, available date information (LinkedIn does not give exact dates posts were made), the post’s title in italics (first 20 words, including hashtags, URLs, or emojis-emojis are not italicized), the notation [Image attached], Video attached], or [Thumbnail with link attached] where applicable. Next is the notation [Post] or [Video], which serves as a description of the post, and lastly, the website name (i.e., LinkedIn) and the URL. Below is an example:

American Psychological Association. (2022, January 24). Psychologists are helping organizations respond to the pandemic’s heightened risk of burnout for workers in all sectors, especially those in. [Thumbnail with link attached] [Post]. LinkedIn. https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6891378277022584832/

LinkedIn Profile

A LinkedIn profile begins with a specific page title, such as ‘‘Home’’ or ‘‘About.’’ Next is the notation [LinkedIn page]. Next is the retrieval date since LinkedIn content is dynamic. The URL comes last, as in the example below:

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.linkedin.com/company/american-psychological-association/

Online Discussion Forums

Popular online discussion forums include Quora, Reddit, and Stack Overflow. A reference entry for an online discussion forum has the author’s name, date (Year, Month Date), the post’s title (first 20 words), the website’s name, and the URL. Below is a reference for a discussion post on Quora:

Melling, K. [Kai-Melling]. (2021, November 22). What historical photos are generally misunderstood? [Online forum post]. Quora. https://www.quora.com/What-historical-photos-are-generally-misunderstood

Comments on Online Discussion Forums

This entails the author’s name, screen name in square brackets, the comment’s first 20 words, followed by the notation [Comment on the online forum post and post’s full title in italics.], website name, and the comment’s (not post’s) URL. Below is an example:

Vorobiev, D. [Dima-Vorobiev]. (2021, November 13). Over the last decades, a photo of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin has been making rounds on the Internet. Great photo [Comment on the online forum post What historical photos are generally misunderstood?]. Quora. https://www.quora.com/What-historical-photos-are-generally-misunderstood/answer/Dima-Vorobiev

Please note: Use a source’s title just as the source presents it, even if it has grammar errors. You can use a footnote to explain a typo you find in the title of a source. However, please do this only if the typo is significant and can confuse readers. Rectifying the errors found in a title can confuse readers about the actual source referenced in the paper. A footnote is unnecessary for simple or insignificant errors. It is rare for published sources, especially peer-reviewed, to have significant grammar mistakes in their titles.

Personal Communications

Emails, telephone conversations, and online chats are some examples of personal communications. Since the reader cannot retrieve personal communications, the writer should not include them in their reference list. However, the writer can cite the information in the text, giving the communicator’s initials and surname, followed by the date (APA, 2021b). Narrative and parenthetical in-text citations are formatted as follows, respectively:

  1. Initials. Surname (personal communication, Month Date, Year). For example:

D.C. Lee (personal communication, January 24, 2022)

  1. (Initials. Surname, personal communication, Month Date, Year). For example:

(D.C. Lee, personal communication, January 24, 2022)

References

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Blog post and blog comment references. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/blog-post-references

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Clip art or stock image references. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/clip-art-references

American Psychological Association. (2020c). Clip art or stock images referenceshttps://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/clip-art-references#1

American Psychological Association. (2020d). Clip art or stock images referenceshttps://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/clip-art-references#2

American Psychological Association. (2020e). Twitter referenceshttps://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/twitter-references#1

American Psychological Association. (2020f). Twitter referenceshttps://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/twitter-references#2

American Psychological Association. (2021a). Online media. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples#online-media

American Psychological Association. (2021b). Personal communications. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/personal-communications

Purdue Writing Lab. (n.d.). Reference list: Audiovisual media. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_audiovisual_media.html